Writing research papers for science and technology

Definition
Contents:
  1. Sample Essay on Technology and Science
  2. Writing a Research Paper
  3. Sciences, Technology & Engineering
  4. Science and Technology Essay
  5. Ideas for Research Paper Topics

Such notes will receive priority of publication. Short communications should not exceed words approximately 9 typed double-spaced pages. Submission checklist You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.


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Declaration of interest All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence bias their work. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file if double-blind or the manuscript file if single-blind. If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted.

Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches.

Sample Essay on Technology and Science

More information. Preprints Please note that preprints can be shared anywhere at any time, in line with Elsevier's sharing policy. Sharing your preprints e. Authorship All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: 1 the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, 2 drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, 3 final approval of the version to be submitted.

Article transfer service This journal is part of our Article Transfer Service. This means that if the Editor feels your article is more suitable in one of our other participating journals, then you may be asked to consider transferring the article to one of those. If you agree, your article will be transferred automatically on your behalf with no need to reformat. Please note that your article will be reviewed again by the new journal. Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions.

Writing a Research Paper

Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author s must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source s in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases. Author rights As an author you or your employer or institution have certain rights to reuse your work. If the funding source s had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Open access This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:. Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards. Creative Commons Attribution CC BY Lets others distribute and copy the article, create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article such as a translation , include in a collective work such as an anthology , text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author s , do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation.

Sciences, Technology & Engineering

Green open access Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our open access page for further information. Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period.

This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public.

PhD: How to write a great research paper

This is the embargo period and it begins from the date the article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form. Find out more.

Science and Technology Essay

This journal has an embargo period of 12 months. Language usage and editing services Please write your text in good English American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these. Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's Author Services. Review Process A peer review system involving two or three reviewers is used to ensure high quality of manuscripts accepted for publication.

The Editor-in-Chief and Editors have the right to decline formal review of the manuscript when it is deemed that the manuscript is 1 on a topic outside the scope of the Journal, 2 lacking technical merit, 3 focused on foods or processes that are of narrow regional scope and significance, 4 fragmentary and provides marginally incremental results, or 5 is poorly written.

Peer Reviews It is the journal policy to keep the peer reviewing anonymous. Names of reviewers are only revealed if they are in agreement with the request of the author. Peer review This journal operates a single blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal.

Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final.


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  • This Article Includes?

More information on types of peer review. Introduction State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results. Results Results should be clear and concise. Conclusions The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.

Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible. Please clearly indicate the given name s and family name s of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. You can add your name between parentheses in your own script behind the English transliteration. Present the authors' affiliation addresses where the actual work was done below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address.

Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. This responsibility includes answering any future queries about Methodology and Materials.

Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' or 'Permanent address' may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

Highlights should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point.

Ideas for Research Paper Topics

Keywords Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 5 keywords, using British spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'. Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes. Abbreviations Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote.

Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article. Formatting of funding sources List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:. It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. Math formulae Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp.

How to Start Your Science Research Paper

Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text if referred to explicitly in the text. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online e.

For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork. Tables Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Include a short but informative title. Provide the experimental conditions, as far as they are necessary for understanding. The reader should not have to refer to the text in order to understand the tables.

And the future of science depends on our present technology. Their mutual impact is one of the primary subjects of STS.